It is urgent to advocate the development of green

2022-07-24
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It is urgent to vigorously promote the development of green packaging. After China's entry into WTO, green barrier, a new term in the field of foreign trade, began to attract more and more people's attention. According to the data provided by the United Nations Statistical Office, 90% of Americans, 89% of Germans and 84% of Dutch will consider the environmental protection standards of products when purchasing goods. It is the enhancement of environmental protection awareness and health awareness that makes green trade become the development trend of world foreign trade. The implementation of green trade not only protects the environment and improves people's quality of life, but also brings a new kind of green trade barrier. As the largest developing country in the world, due to the large gap between China and the developed countries in Europe and the United States in the formulation and implementation of environmental standards, capital investment, environmental technology level and so on, the barrier effect of green barriers on China's export commodities is increasing. At present, the international green packaging system has become one of the main contents of setting green standards in developed countries. According to relevant statistics, China's foreign exchange revenue is reduced by about 10% every year due to packaging problems, a considerable part of which is caused by packaging that does not meet the green requirements. Therefore, it is urgent to vigorously promote the development of green packaging

1 international green packaging system

the green packaging system requires that packaging materials should save resources, reduce waste, be easy to recycle or regenerate after use, or be easy to decompose naturally, do not pollute the environment, protect environmental resources and consumer health. In other words, the whole operation process of packaging products from raw material selection, material processing, product manufacturing and use, waste recycling to final treatment should not cause public hazards to human body and environment. Developed countries have put forward the "4r1d" principle, that is: ① reduce: that is, reduce the use of packaging materials as much as possible under the conditions of meeting the protection, convenience, sales and other functions of packaging. ② Reuse: the package can be reused after proper treatment after completing a certain use function. ③ Recycle: adopt wire cutting machine to cut the alloy bar into Phi by taking measures such as producing recycled products, burning and utilizing heat energy, composting and improving soil; 16mm times; 140mm specimen and 5mm times; 5mm times; 5mm metallographic sample can be reused. ④ Refill: cans, bottles and other packaging materials can be refilled after recycling. ⑤ Degradable: packaging waste can be clamped by clamps at both ends of the spline, so as to avoid environmental pollution and improve the soil. On this basis, with the progress of science, green packaging may have more connotations. According to this system principle, in recent decades, developed countries have successively taken measures to formulate laws, regulations and technical standards on packaging containing environmental protection measures, mainly including the following

1) formulate laws and regulations on green packaging and strengthen the recycling of packaging waste

as early as July, 1985, the then European Community passed the beverage container packaging act. Article 1 of the act clearly states that one of the purposes of the act is to reuse and recycle beverage containers. In 1994, on the basis of the laws and regulations formulated by various countries, the European Community officially promulgated the guidelines for packaging and packaging waste, requiring all the participating republics to implement them uniformly

Germany's circular economy law, packaging regulations and other regulations link the recycling requirements, utilization and disposal of easy operation with production, sales and consumption, and decompose and implement each link from recycling to disposal to each department, which is highly operable. The system is applicable to all beverage, detergent and paint containers, and the requirements for German companies and foreign companies are the same

2) prohibit the use of packaging materials that are difficult to regenerate or decompose, and develop green packaging that can be recycled

developed countries have done a lot of work on packaging materials while legislating and managing packaging wastes. Packaging materials are developing in the direction of energy saving, low consumption, pollution prevention and high function. The research and development of recyclable ecological packaging materials is one of the key topics attracting worldwide attention. For example, Italy has banned the use of non degradable plastic sundry bags in its territory since january1991. The German government has taken measures to promote the beverage industry to change PVC bottles into PET bottles, and requires that 80% of PET bottles be recycled. The use of PVC has been banned, and only polyethylene (PE) or polyester (PET) recyclable packaging materials are allowed. According to the World Packaging Organization Council, the United States, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and European countries have banned the use of PVC packaging materials

3) formulate specific indicators to promote the recycling of packaging resources

in july1995, Germany stipulated that the legal quota of packaging recovery was 80%, and required that 80% ~ 90% of the total amount must be recycled. At the same time, it is stipulated that the transportation packaging shall be 100% recycled, and the sales packaging shall be recycled by the producers and sellers according to the principles of "who produces who recycles" and "who sells who recycles"

the UK stipulates that 60% of industrial packaging and 35% of household packaging will be recycled from 2000

France stipulates that from 2000, the manufacturer shall pay 75% of the recovery quota

4) specify the use of certain packaging materials. Importers must complete

in order to protect their own resources, crops, buildings, water sources and forests, and prevent damage caused by pests, bacteria, microorganisms, etc. in the packaging, many countries have made restrictions on 5 corrosive and worn packaging, and strict inspection and treatment regulations. For example, it is prohibited to use traditional natural packaging materials such as wood, straw and old gunny bags, and packaging materials containing lead, mercury and cadmium, etc

5) collect various raw material fees, product packaging fees and waste disposal fees. Collect various taxes (Fees) from enterprises producing packaging materials. If recyclable packaging materials are used in all product packaging, they can be exempted from tax; If recycled materials are partially used, a lower tax will be levied; Higher taxes will be levied if all non reusable or recycled materials are used. (to be continued)

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